• RSS Somali VOA

    • Booliska Kenya oo Lagu Eedeeyay Kufsi iyo Jirdil December 14, 2017
      Hey’ada Xuquuqda Aadanaha ee Human Rights Watch ayaa sheegtay in inti lagu guda jiray doorashadi madaxtinimo ee Kenya ka dhacday sanadkaan, ay ciidanka boolisku kufsadeen tiro haween ah isla markaana jirdil u geysteen dad rayid ah.
    • Wariyeyaal Lagu Xiray Myanmar December 14, 2017
      Qaramada Midoobay ayaa walaac ka muujisay xarig Talaadadi lasoo dhaafay loogu geystay dalka Myanmar laba wariye oo ka tirsan wakaalada wararka Rueters.
    • Faah-faahin Kasoo Baxday Qaraxii Muqdisho December 14, 2017
      Saraakiisha ciidanka booliska Soomaaliya ayaa xaqiijiyay in qarax saakay ka dhacay Dugsiga Tababarka Booliska ee Jeneraal Kaahiye ee magaalada Muqdisho, ay ku dhinteen 18 askari.
    • Caqabadaha Horyaalla Golaha Wasiirrada Soomaaliland December 14, 2017
      Madaxweynaha Somaliland Muuse Biixi Cabdi ayaa maanta soo liiska golahiisa cusub ee wasiirrada.
    • Ronaldinho oo Ku Biiraya Siyaasadda December 14, 2017
      Wargeyska Now O Globo ee kasoo baxa magaalada Rio de Janeiro, ayaa maanta daabacay in laacibki hore ee adduunka Ronaldinho uu u ordi doono kursiga baarlamaanka ee gobolka uu kasoo jeedo Minas Gerais ee dalka Brazil.
    • Madaxweyne Biixi oo Ku Dhawaaqay Golaha Wasiirrada December 14, 2017
      Madaxweynaha Somaliland Muuse Biixi Cabdi ayaa maanta ku dhawaaqay golihiisa cusub ee wasiirrada.
    • Askar Ku Dhimatay Qarax Ka Dhacay Muqudisho December 14, 2017
      Qarax saakay aroorti ka dhacay Dugsiga Tababarka Booliska ee Jeneraal Kaahiye ee magaalada Muqdisho ayaa la sheegay inuu sababay dhimashada 17 askari oo ka tirsan ciidamada booliska.
    • Qubanaha VOA, Dec 14, 2017 December 13, 2017
    • Man City oo La Gaari La,yahay  December 13, 2017
      Kooxda Manchester City ayaa kordhisay dhibcaha ay ku hogaamineyso horyaalka Premier League ee dalka Ingiriiska, ka gadaal marki ay 4-0 ku dardartay xalay kooxda Swansea City.
    • Milan oo Tiigsatay Sideed Dhamaadka Coppa Italia December 13, 2017
      Kooxda AC Milan ayaa gaartay wareega sideeda kooxood ee tartanka Coppa Italia ee dalka Talyaaniga kadib marki ay xalay 3-0 ugu awood sheegatay kooxda Hellas Verona.
    • Real Madrid oo Gaartay Finalka Koobka Qaaradaha December 13, 2017
      Kooxda Real Madrid ayaa gaartay finalka koobka Naadiyada Aduunka, kadib marki ay xalay 2-1 ku garaacday kooxda Al Jazira ee dalka Isutaga Imaaraadka Carabta.
    • Ururka Islaamka oo Qudus u Aqoonsaday Caasimadda Falastiin December 13, 2017
      Magaalada Istanbul ee Turkiga waxaa lagu soo gababeeyey shir madaxeedka waddamada Islaamka, kaas oo magaalada Qudus ay madaxdii shirka ka qeyb gashay ugu aqoonsadeen magaalo madaxda mustaqbalka ee Falastiin
    • Somaliland: M. Biixii oo loo Dhaariyey Xilka Madaxtinimo December 13, 2017
      Madaxweynahii hore ee Somaliland Axmed Maxamed Maxamuud (Siilaanyo) ayaa maanta xilkii ku warejiyay madaxweeynaha la doortay Muuse Biixii Cabdi oo maanta xilkaasi loo dhaariyay.
    • Duqeyn Cirka ah oo ka Dhacday Buula-Burte December 13, 2017
      Duqeynta ayaa ka dhacday meel ku dhow degmada Buula-Burte oo lagu magacaabo Wardhiinle, iyada oo saraakiisha dowladda Soomaaliya ee gobolka ay aamisan yihiin in duqeynta lagu bartimaameedsaday saldhig cusub oo degaanka ay Alshabab ka sameysteen.
    • Somalia: Baarlamaanka oo Miisaaniyadda 2018 Ansixiyey December 13, 2017
      Baarlamaanka Soomaaliya ayaa ansixiyey miisaaniyadda dawladda ee sannadkan soo socda oo la sheegay inay dhan tahay in ka badan 274 milyan oo dollar.
    • Ciyaaraha Maamul Gobolleedyada Dalka Mala Siyasaddeeyey? December 13, 2017
      Dhowr casho oo magaalada Muqdisho ay ka socdaan ciyaaraha gobollada dalka ayaa waxaa ka qeybgaley madaxda maamul gobolleedyada dalka ee dhalinyarada ciyaareyso laga soo kala xuley iyo sdioo kale xildhibaanada labada golle ee baarlmaanka ku jiro ee goboladaasi laga soo doorto. Taasi oo keentey in dadka qaar kood ay u arkaan in ciyaaraha ay uga qeybgalayeen si […]
    • Doug Jones oo ku Guuleystey Doorashada Senator-nimada Alabama December 13, 2017
      Doug Jones, musharaxi xisbiga Dimuquraadiga ayaa ku guuleystey doorashadi kursiga senat-ka Mareykanka ee gobolka Alabama. In kasta oo siyaasadda gobolku ay u janjeerto dhanka midige, hadana codbixiyeyaasha ayaa Doug Jones ka doorbidey Roy Moore oo Jamhuuri ah. Guushan ayaa ka dhigan marka sanadka cusub la dhaariyo Doug Jones, in aqalka Senate-ka ee ay hada k […]
    • Madaxweyne Muuse Biixi oo berri la caleemo saarayo December 12, 2017
      Munaasibadda dhaarinta madaxweynaha iyo madaxweyne ku xigeenka Somaliland ee la soo doortay 13 kii November, ayaa berri kja dhaceysa Hargeysa.
    • Soomaaliya oo fileysa in deymaha laga cafiyo December 12, 2017
      Dowladda Soomaaliya ayaa sheegtay inay fileyso in deymaha lagu leeyahay Soomaaliya laga dhaafo, isla markaana la maalgashado Soomaaliya.
    • Duqeyn ka dhacday gobolka Sh/Hoose December 12, 2017
      Wararka ka imaanaya gobolka Shabeellaha hoose ayaa sheegaya in xalay duqeyn cirka ah lala beegsaday gaari nooca caasiga loo yaqaan ah oo marayay deegaanka Mubaarak.
  • Soo Raac

  • Sawiro Xusuus Leh

  • Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

    Join 46 other followers

  • your IP adress

    IP address
  • Archives

Effect of Draft Constitution: End of Somalia, Not End of Transition


Mr__Mohamud__Uluso11The International Community (IC) Has delivered a pre-approved

 

 

 

Mandatory “Draft Provisional Constitution (DPC)” to 135

 

 

Traditional Leaders (TLs)” and 825-member “National Constituent

 

 

 

Assembly (NCA) with the official message that both groups are not allowed to make amendments to the draft document or to reject it. The UN-led Constitution-Making Process for Somalia could be described all but “legitimate, accountable, transparent, participatory, inclusive and most importantly Somali-led” as claimed by the Special Representative of the UN Secretary General (SRSG) and head of the United Nations Political Office for Somalia (UNPOS).

 

From the beginning, the Constitutional process has been funded, managed and controlled by the IC through United Nations bodies and the International Development Law Organization (IDLO) which implements the Italian funded project for “Supporting the Constitutional Review Process (CRP) in Somalia.” On July 23, UNPOS released a revised version of DPC previously signed by the six (6) signatories of the Roadmaps process in Nairobi, Kenya on June 23, 2012. It issued a new Guide Book explaining the contents of the DPC. Additionally, for surprise reversal of position, the SRSG announced the increase of the number of Members of People’s House of Federal Parliament (FP) from 225 to 275 members.

Two mysterious committees- a Technical Review Committee and a Transitional Federal Government (TFG) Joint Implementation Unit[1]– have the discretionary power to amend continually the DPC while UNPOS has brazenly overruled the proposals for amendments or postponement of DPC debate from the majority of the Somali leaders. The Minister for Constitution, Federalism and Reconciliation, Hon Abdurahman Hosh told the NCA members in clear terms that they should not waste their time studying the already pre-approved mandatory Draft Constitution and they should applaud for the work done as a sign of appreciation. Otherwise NCA members could be labeled as “spoilers.” UNPOS has predetermined that just one-fourth of 825 NCA-member is needed to vote on a loaded question[2]. Even if NCA rejects it, DPC remains the law of the land. Somalia has been subjected to a transitional system of governance and to a Constitution-Making process never experienced in recent history.

The latest version of DPC contains 143 articles and its predictable effect is the “End of Somalia as a country and people” and “not the End of Transition period for permanent system of governance.” The provisions of DPC promote all sorts of problems and political dynamics such as social fragmentation and conflicts, secession or separation, foreign claims over Somali territory, primacy of international laws over Somalia laws, long term foreign military occupation, installation of bogus Federal Government (FG) and protracted stalemate over the formation of Federal Member States (FMSs).

Salient provisions of the DPC

The Guide Book which explains main salient provisions of the DPC outlines the followings:

1) Federalism: DPC prescribes a Federal system of government (Federalism) for Somalia for three reasons:

(a) To accommodate the existing regional governments, specifically Puntland or GalMudug; No mention of Somaliland.

(b) To accommodate the distinct regional needs of the Somali people. This Somali distinction echoes Ethiopia’s strategic perspective towards Somalia[3].

(c) To implement shared rule (in central government) and self-rule (in regional government).

2. Noted Problems of Federalism in the Guide Book:

(a) The creation of FMSs proved to be very controversial issue during the constitutional conferences. The responsibility for establishing FMSs has been invested in the the House of the People of FP subject to the recommendations from an Independent Commission on Boundaries and Federation.

(b) The allocation and regulations of natural resources, public finance and tax raising powers are still subject to negotiations between FG and non-existing FMSs. In accordance with article 50 (b), DPC requires in anticipation that governmental functions are exercised and taxes are being collected at the level of government where they are most effectively being exercised or raised. The interpretation of this requirement is open for dispute. Also, each FMS has the freedom to formulate its own land policy

(c) Although foreign affairs, national defense, citizenship and immigration, and monetary policy shall be part of the remit of the FG, existing FMSs (Puntland) retain and exercise their powers on the basis of their State Constitutions independently from the FG. Yet, FG must consult at all-time with FMSs on matters related to federalism, security and foreign affairs.

(d) FMSs are exclusively empowered to develop the status, structure and competences of local governments, and any further political and administrative decentralization deemed necessary through their own State Constitutions without reference to FG or DPC.

3) Independent Commissions: DPC creates Independent Commissions, which shall be bodies operating separately from government or political control to handle specific governmental functions.

4) Civil Servants: DPC regulates only FG civil servants.

5) Judicial System: DPC provides three different levels of courts: (1) Constitutional Court, (2) FG Courts, and (3) FMSs Courts. The Constitutional Court and the FG level Courts will be administered by the Judicial Services Commission (JSC). FMSs Courts will be administered by Institutions created by FMSs Constitutions.

6) Peace, Security and Defense: FG is responsible for the guarantee of the peace, security and national sovereignty of the FG. However, each FMS is entitled to establish its own FMS’s police to protect the lives and property of its people alone or in cooperation with the federal police force.

7) Representation: The parliament of each FMS represents its population. Members of the People’s House of FP represent the entire population of the Federated FMSs. Then, the Upper House of FP represents FMSs. These complicated representations for Somalia need separate discussions.

8) Amendments: There are two processes for constitutional amendments. One process is to be followed in the period before the popular referendum on DPC and the other one is to be practiced after popular referendum. In any case, Amendments to the Constitutions will require 2/3 of Upper House of FP which does not exist. This situation prohibits amendments of any type to DPC.

9) Effect of DPC. DPC comes into effect at the conclusion of the NCA 9-days conference in Mogadishu, Somalia.

Implications of the salient provisions of the DPC

I. The Guide Book omitted the discussion of certain controversial provisions of the DPC. Some of those omissions are:

1) The philosophical interpretation of the articles 2, 11, 17, and 18 all related to religion, equality and personal freedom. Similarly the Guide Book did not clarify the contradictions between articles 53 on International negotiation and 54 on allocation of powers.

2) The reasons for eliminating functional relationship between the President and the Upper House of FP.

3) The reasons for the subjection of the Somali territory to international dispute as per article 7 (3).

4) The rationale behind the supremacy of the international laws and the laws of other countries over the Somali Law in all matters as per article 40 (2) on the interpretation of the fundamental rights.

II. Problems and dynamics causing the End of Somalia

(a) Federalism for Somalia has never been thoroughly debated among Somalis for their long term unity, stability and prosperity. That is why there is no legitimate consensus on the issue since 2002. Alternatively, there is quasi unanimous consensus on democratic system of governance with effective decentralization based on the distribution of finance, services, development and political power. Forced Federalism is unworkable and counterproductive.

(b) DPC creates bogus FG without stakeholders, financial resources and ability to exercise practically any national political power. It also creates parallel federal, state and local systems of governance without national hierarchies and accountability. To the detriment of national unity, infinite FMS(s) Presidents, Council of Ministers, Parliaments, security forces, civil services and independent judiciary structures will sprawl all over. In a historical time when the international assistance has dwindled and the motto is for small Government at all levels, DPC forces the worn-torn Somalia to establish unsustainable structures of system of governance without allocation of power, financial resources and massive external support.

(c) DPC grants five special privileges to FMSs. First, each FMS is independent from the FG. Second, FG must consult with each FMS in its decision making process regarding federal system and security arrangement. Third, each FMS’s citizenship is recognized despite DPC says National Citizenship is indivisible. Fourth, existing FMSs are exempt from the contribution to the costs of FG’s nominal representation of all Somalis. Residents of non- existing FMSs bear FG’s financial burden. Fifth, each FMS independently pursues its foreign interests. There are no reciprocal privileges from FMSs towards FG. FMSs dominate FG. This mirrors the ideas behind the failed US articles of confederation of 1781.

(d) Territories and people under FG rule will more likely suffer exploitation, political and economic mismanagement, violence and foreign military occupation.

(e) Recognition of Puntland as FMS could intensify conflict between Somaliland and Puntland. At the same time, the exclusion/exemption of Somaliland from the coverage of DPC will legalize its secession from Somalia. In addition, the acceptance of Federalism based on 18 regions de-legitimizes the existence of Puntland and Somaliland as FMSs. These contradictions undermine national dialogue for genuine national accord and reinforce national fragmentation.

(f) Given Puntland as a model for FMS, DPC encourages the daily emergence of mini-States throughout Somalia which could lead to social tension and long term instability.

(g) DPC deprives FG of the constitutional legitimacy of representing Somaliland and Puntland in the international arena.

(h) FP has no power in exercising constitutional amendments, given the inexistence of the Upper House of FP, and other restrictions built in the DPC for proposing, drafting and approving amendments before and after popular referendum.

The Somali people have been denied the right and opportunity to participate the UN-led constitutional making process and their demand for ownership has been treated with contempt. The DPC is imposed on Somalia with intimidation and corruption. To some extent, the negative attitude of the Somali intellectuals has encouraged the IC to invest the national political power in six (6) individuals without legitimate representation and to organize show conferences of TLs and NCA without legitimate purpose. Nevertheless, PDC instigates challenges that could halt or delay the march towards peace, stability and progress in Somalia.

Mr. Mohamud M Uluso

mohamuduluso@gmail.com

[1] It is hard to keep up with the changing terminology and names invented by IC for media attention.

[2] http://unpos.unmissions.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=Crs_XvJpAd4%3d&tabid=9705&language=en-USShould this draft provisional constitution be provisionally adopted to provide for a better Somalia, help reconstruct our country and set us on the right path to justice and lasting peace, pending final adoption at the referendum? “

[3] http://www.mfa.gov.et/docs/Foreign%20Policy%20English.pdf

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: